POSTER SESSION Chair: Marta Bagatin, DEI - University of Padova
Dose-Rate Effects on the Total Ionizing Dose Response of Piezoresistive Micromachined Cantilevers C. N. Arutt, W. Liao, H. Gong, M. L. Alles, J. L. Davidson, E. X. Zhang, A. L. Sternberg, D. M. Fleetwood, R. A. Reed, R. D. Schrimpf, Vanderbilt University; P. D. Shurva, J.-T. Lin, B. W. Alphenaar, K. M. Walsh, S. McNamara, University of Louisville
Total-ionizing-dose-induced resonant frequency shifts in piezoresistive, micromachined cantilevers are experimentally shown to be dose rate dependent. Lower dose rates produce greater frequency shifts. Mechanisms for carrier generation and frequency shifts are proposed.
Varied Total Ionization Dose (TID) Study of PZT Based Thin-Film Stacks and Actuator Devices for Piezoelectric MEMS Applications M. Rivas, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, and University of Connecticut; S. J. Brewer, Georgia Institute of Technology; H. Zhou, J. L. Jones, North Carolina State University; R. Q. Rudy, R. G. Polcawich, U.S. Army Research Laboratory; C. D. Cress, E. R. Glaser, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory; N. Bassiri-Gharb, Georgia Institute of Technology
This paper investigates total ionizing dose (TID) effects on the ferroelectric, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-film devices with two different top electrodes exposed to a 60Co source.
Investigation of TID and Dynamic Burn-in Induced VT Shift on RTG4 Flash-Based FPGA N. Rezzak, J.-J. Wang, M. Traas, G. Bakker, F. Xue, A. Cai, F. Hawley, E. Hamdy, Microsemi
RTG4 TID tolerance is investigated Post Dynamic BurnIn (PDBI). PFlash VT shift PDBI is due to programming voltage degradation; DBI has minimum impact on RTG4 CFlash TID tolerance since it is dominated by NFlash.
Carrier Lifetime vs. Stepwise 8.2 and 63 MeV Proton Irradiation in III-V Space Detectors G. D. Jenkins, C. P. Morath, E. H. Steenbergen, V. M. Cowan, Air Force Research Laboratory
Data and analyses are presented on the degradation of minority carrier lifetime in different InAs/InAsSb superlattice detector structures resulting from 8.2 and 63 MeV stepwise proton irradiation to correlate damage factors with NIEL.
Atypical Effect of TNID on a LM124 Bipolar Integrated Circuits T. Borel, Institut d’Electronique et des Systemes (IES) and CERN; F. Roig, Nucletudes; A. Michez, L. Dusseau, Institut d’Electronique et des Systemes (IES); B. Azais, Direction Generale de l’Armement (DGA); S. Danzeca, CERN; N. J.-H. Roche, Centre Spatial Universitaire (CSU); F. Bezerra, Centre National d’Etude Spatiales (CNES); P. Calvel, Thales Alenia Space
LM124 COTS amplifiers are irradiated with neutrons (TNID). It is shown that a slight modification in the design at transistor and circuit level is responsible for an apparent increase in the slew rate (circuit effect).
Total-Ionizing-Dose Response of Nb2O5-Based MIM Diodes for Neuromorphic Computing Applications R. Jiang, E. X. Zhang, S. Zhao, D. M. Fleetwood, R. D. Schrimpf, R. A. Reed, M. L. Alles, Vanderbilt University; J. C. Shank, B. Tellekamp, W. A. Doolittle, Georgia Institute of Technology
We employ capacitance-frequency measurements to evaluate the total-ionizing-dose response of Nb2O5-based MIM diodes that are designed for neuromorphic computing applications. Despite their high oxygen vacancy densities, devices are quite radiation tolerant.
Nuclear Radiation Tolerant Wireless Transmitter Irradiation Test Results J. Carvajal, M. Heibel, N. Arlia, M. James, R. Flammang, Westinghouse Electric Company; A. Bascom, K. Ünlü, The Pennsylvania State University
This paper describes the novel implementation of a vacuum micro-electronic device configured as a wireless transmitter. The device’s frequency and amplitude response to radiation is discussed and the results of irradiation testing are presented.
Displacement Damage Dose and DLTS Analyses on Triple and Single Junction Solar Cells Irradiated with Electrons and Protons M. Tacconi, M. Gervasi, D. Rozza, INFN / University of Milano Bicocca; C. Baur, ESTEC, ESA; R. Campesato, M. Casale, E. Greco, CESI; E. Gombia, A. Kingma, IMEM-CNR Institute; P. G. Rancoita, INFN
In this paper we report the radiation data for triple junction solar cells and related component cells. Radiation results have been analyzed by means of the Displacement Damage Dose method and with DLTS spectroscopy.
Single Event Transients in Read-Out Circuitries at Low Temperature Down to 50K A. Al Youssef, L. Artola, G. Hubert, ONERA; S. Ducret, R. Buiron, F. Perrier, S. Parola, Sofradir; C. Poivey, ESA
This paper presents the impact of cryogenic temperatures on the SET sensitivity of two readout circuit of infrared image sensor designed by Sofradir. Experimental SET data are described and the analysis is completed by simulations.
Comparison of Methods to Calculate the Dark Current Non Uniformity in Pixel Arrays M.-C. Ursule, C. Inguimbert, T. Nuns, J. Morio, ONERA
Several methods of DCNU prediction (Monte Carlo and simplified methods based on the central limit theorem) are presented and compared with experimental data. Their domain of validity is explored on a large range of fluences.
Radiation Induced Attenuation in Single-Mode Phosphosilicate Optical Fibers for Dosimetry D. Di Francesca, Y. Kadi, M. Brugger, CERN; G. Li Vecchi, CERN and Universite de Saint-Etienne; S. Girard, A. Alessi, I. Reghioua, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, Universite de Saint-Etienne
We report a preliminary investigation of the radiation induced attenuation in P and P-Ce doped single-mode optical fibers to evaluate their potential employment as distributed radiation sensors in CERN accelerators.
Vulnerability and Hardening Studies of Optical and Illumination Systems at MGy Dose Levels T. Allanche, C. Muller, R. Clerc, T. Lepine, M. Hebert, A. Boukenter, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, Universite de Saint-Etienne; P. Paillet, O. Duhamel, C. Marcandella, CEA, DAM, DIF; V. Goiffon, S. Rizzolo, P. Magnan, ISAE-SUPAERO; M. Van Uffelen, L. Mont-Casellas, Fusion For Energy; R. Scott, Oxford Technologies; W. De Cock, SCK-CEN
We characterize before and after irradiation, up to 1MGy dose, optical materials and components (LEDs) for integration in camera sub-systems. The results are promising to design radiation-hardened imaging systems for ITER (FURHIS project).
Fundamental Limitations on Integrated Silicon Photonic Waveguides Operating in a Heavy Ion Environment P. S. Goley, Z. E. Fleetwood, J. D. Cressler, Georgia Institute of Technology
The impact of heavy-ion induced radial ionization profiles in integrated silicon photonic waveguides are investigated. 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations are used to ascertain transmission characteristics through a variety of ionization profiles.
Total-Ionizing-Dose Response of Multi-Fin Ge MOS Capacitors with High-K Dielectrics S. Zhao, R. Jiang, E. X. Zhang, W. Liao, C. Liang, D. M. Fleetwood, R. D. Schrimpf, R. A. Reed, N. Collaert, Vanderbilt University; D. Linten, J. Mitard, IMEC
We evaluate capacitance-voltage and capacitance-frequency characteristics of multi-fin capacitors with high-k dielectrics built using advanced Ge-FinFET technology. Capacitance-frequency measurements at flatband voltage provide upper bounds on border-trap densities.
Understanding the Implications of a LINAC’s Microstructure on Transient Photocurrent Models M. McLain, F. Hartman, K. McDonald, C. Hembree, Sandia National Laboratories
The implications of a LINAC’s microstructure on transient photocurrent models are investigated. Typically, the rate the energy is deposited in a material during the microstructure peaks is much higher than the pulse-averaged rate.
Gamma-Ray Irradiation Effects on TiN/Ti/HfO2/TiN RRAM Studied via Electrically Detected Magnetic Resonance D. J. McCrory, Pennsylvania State University
We observe a strong gamma irradiation induced change in electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) of TiN/Ti/HfO2/TiN RRAM. The EDMR detects defects directly involved in the underlying transport mechanisms within these devices.
Neutron and Gamma Irradiation Induced Effects in HPSI 4H-SiC Photoconductors P. V. Raja, N. V. L. N. Murty, IIT Bhubaneswar
14.1MeV neutron and 60Co-gamma irradiation produced traps in high-purity semi-insulating 4H-SiC are reported. Irradiation induced changes in substrate resistivity, dark current and UV response of 4H-SiC photoconductors are analyzed.
In Situ Synaptic Programming of Cu-SiO2 CBRAM in a TID Environment J. L. Taggart, W. Chen, Y. Gonzalez-Velo, H. J. Barnaby, K. Holbert, M. N. Kozicki, Arizona State University
Neuromorphic programming of CuSiO2 resistive memory during gamma-ray irradiation is shown to be feasible. In situ results suggest that ionizing radiation may contribute to an increase in power needed to program the conductance state.
Total Ionization Dose Effects on Charge Trapping Memory (CTM) with Al2/HfO2/Al2O3 Trilayer Structure J. Bi, Y. Xu, K. Xi, Y. Li, M. Liu, Chinese Academy of Sciences; L. Chen, University of Saskatchewan
Total ionization dose (TID) effects by x-ray on Al2/HfO2/Al2O3 based CTM cells are experimentally evaluated. Program, Erase and Memory Window characteristics are studied in details with different bias conditions during TID irradiation.
Defects and Gain Degradation in PNP Si BJTs Irradiated with Different Mass Particles B. A. Aguirre, E. Bielejec, R. M. Fleming, G. Vizkelethy, B. Vaandrager, J. Campbell, W. J. Martin, Sandia National Laboratories
We explore defects created at the base-emitter junction of pnp Si BJTs by different mass particles. We found that V2* and E5 defects dominate the gain degradation whereas VP only has a small contribution.
Comparing Radiation Induced Lifetime Degradation in InAs/InAsSb Type-II Superlattices Using 4.5 and 63 MeV Proton Irradiations E. Bielejec, E. A. Kadlec, M. Goldfam, E. A. Shander, J. K. Kim, J. Moussa, P. A. Schultz, Sandia National Laboratories; C. P. Morath, G. D. Jenkins, V. M. Cowan, US Air Force Research Laboratory
Lifetime degradation in InAs/InAsSb superlattices is investigated under proton irradiation using time-resolved microwave reflectance measurements. We demonstrate damage equivalence between 4.5 and 63 MeV proton irradiation scaling ion fluence from SRIM simulations.
Stochastic Gain Degradation in III-V Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors Due to Single Particle Displacement Damage G. Vizkelethy, E. Bielejec, B. A. Aguirre, Sandia National Laboratories
Gain degradation in III-V Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors due to single particles was measured. Cumulative Distribution Functions were calculated to help determine design margins. The displacement process was modeled using the Marlowe BCA code.
Effects of Ion Irradiation on the Layered Semiconducting Material WSe2 T. Shi, , I. Jovanovic University of Michigan; R. C. Walker II, B. Jariwala, J. A. Robinson, Pennsylvania State University
In this work, we investigated the effects of ionizing irradiation by protons and heavy metal ions on layered semiconducting material WSe2 using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy.
Analysis of Single-Event Effects in DDR3 and DDR3L SDRAMs Using Laser Testing and Monte-Carlo Simulations P. Kohler, V. Pouget, F. Wrobel, F. Saigne, University of Montpellier, CNRS; P.-X. Wang, M.-C. Vassal, 3DPlus
This paper presents a comparative analysis of the SEE sensitivity of DDR3 memories from different manufacturers. Events thresholds are analyzed using two-photon laser testing and Monte-Carlo simulations. Bitline upsets are observed and discussed.
A Circuit Technique for Characterizing Single-Event-Transient Pulses S. Kumar, L. Everson, I. Ahmed, M. Liu, Q. Tang, C. H. Kim, University of Minnesota; H. Quinn, Los Alamos National Laboratory; M. Cho, M. Khellah, J. Tschanz, S. Borkar, V. De, Intel Corporation
A novel back-sampling chain circuit technique is implemented in 65nm bulk CMOS to capture single event transients and soft error rate. Radiation induced strike waveform is reconstructed and analyzed for alpha and neutron particles.
Failure Analysis of Heavy-Ion-Irradiated Schottky Diodes M. C. Casey, J.-M. Lauenstein, M. J. Campola, K. A. LaBel, NASA GSFC; E. P. Wilcox, A. D. Topper, AS&D, Inc.
In this work, we use high- and low-magnitude optical microscope images, infrared camera images, and scanning electron microscope images to identify and describe the failure locations in heavy-ion-irradiated Schottky diodes.
Comparison of FPGA Design Sensitivity to SEUs on Two Different SRAM-Based FPGA Architectures A. M. Keller, T. A. Whiting, K. B. Sawyer, M. J. Wirthlin, Brigham Young University
Two FPGA designs are tested for SEU sensitivity on an Altera Stratix V and a Xilinx Kintex 7 FPGA (28nm). Fault injection and neutron radiation testing reveal several similarities. SEU mitigation reduces sensitivity 4-728x.
Evaluation of Feed-Forward Artificial Neural Networks Reliability in FPGAs F. Libano, P. Rech, L. Tambara, J. Tonfat, F. Kastensmidt, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; N. Medina, N. Added, V. Aguiar, F. Aguirre, Universidade de Sao Paulo; M. Silveira, Centro Universitario da FEI
We evaluate through fault-injection and heavy-ions experiments the reliability of a neural network for pattern recognition implemented in FPGAs. We show that only a small portion of output errors affect the classification.
Scaling Effects on Single-Event Transients in InGaAs FinFETs H. Gong, K. Ni, E. X. Zhang, A. L. Sternberg, J. A. Kozub, K. L. Ryder, R. F. Keller, M. L. Alles, R. A. Reed, D. M. Fleetwood, R. D. Schrimpf, Vanderbilt University; A. Vardy, X. Cai, J. A. del Alamo, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The single-event transient responses of InGaAs FinFETs with different fin width exposed to pulsed laser and heavy-ion irradiation are investigated. Devices with larger fin width collect more charge in both irradiation environments.
Predicting Frequency Dependence of Logic Single-Event Cross-Section at Advanced Technology Nodes H. Jiang, H. Zhang, J. S. Kauppila, W. T. Holman, B. L. Bhuva, L. W. Massengill, Vanderbilt University
An empirical model to estimate logic SE cross-section is presented. The estimated cross-section matches well with the measured cross-section. The model only needs to be calibrated once for use at a node.
Time-Domain Modeling of Linear All-Digital PLLs (ADPLLs) to Single-Event Upset (SEU) Perturbations Y. P. Chen, L. W. Massengill, J. S. Kauppila, B. L. Bharat, W. T. Holman, Vanderbilt University; T. D. Loveless, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
A new time-domain model for SEU response of linear ADPLLs is presented and validated against FPGA-based fault injection experiments. The model is applicable to RHBD activities and failure mode predictions.
Microbeam SEE Analysis of MIM Capacitors for GaN Amplifiers P. Kupsc, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, M. Muschitiello, A. Barnes, A. Zadeh, M. Poizat, European Space Agency; A. Javanainen, University of Jyvaskyla and Vanderbilt University; H. Stieglauer, United Monolithic Semiconductors GmbH; K.-O. Voss, GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research
Broad-beam and microbeam tests were conducted on Metal - Insulator - Metal (MIM) structures, revealing breakdown either in the MIM or the insulator covering the semiconductor substrate under the air bridge, depending on their respective thickness.
Predicting Muon-Induced SEU Sensitivity of a 28 nm SRAM Using Ions to Calibrate the Sensitive Volume Model J. M. Trippe, R. A. Reed, R. A. Austin, B. D. Sierawski, L. W. Massengill, R. A. Weller, K. M. Warren, R. D. Schrimpf, Vanderbilt University; B. Narasimham, D. Reed, B. Bartz, Broadcom
Muon-induced upset cross-sections are predicted for a 28 nm SRAM using Monte Carlo simulations informed by ion test results. Results are compared to experimental data for validation. A comparative rate prediction is provided.
Experimental Characterization of the Dominant Multiple Nodes Charge Collection Mechanism R. Song, S. Chen, Y. Chi, Z. Wu, B. Liang, J. Chen, National University of Defense Technology
We propose an experimental method to investigate the dominant multiple nodes charge collection mechanism. Experimental results confirm diffusion collection dominate charge collection at low LET while parasitic bipolar amplification effect dominate it at high LET.
Laser Visualization of the Development of Long Line-Type Multi-Cell Upsets in Back-Biased SOI SRAMs H. Itsuji, D. Kobayashi, K. Hirose, The University of Tokyo and Institute of Space and Astronautical Science; O. Kawasaki,JAXA; D. Matsuura, T. Narita, M. Kato, S. Ishii, K. Masukawa , Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
An interesting MCU phenomenon in SOI SRAMs featuring lines of more than 10 flipped cells is studied. A TPA laser probe successfully revealed how the line developed, providing clues to understand the mechanism.
Delay Monitor Circuit for Sensitive Nodes in SRAM-Based FPGA M. Darvishi, Y. Audet, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal; Y. Blaquiere, Ecole de Technologie Superieure (ETS)
This paper presents a novel monitor circuit architecture and experiments performed for detection of extra combinational delays in a high frequency SRAM-Based FPGA on delay sensitive nodes due to transient ionizing radiation.
On-Chip Relative SET/SEU Susceptibility Test Circuit for ICs Working in Real Time P. Hao, S. Chen, Z. Wu, National University of Defense Technology
A test circuit for measuring relative SET/SEU sensitivity of each node in circuits working in real time is proposed for first time. This is significant for IC design with high reliability and low overhead.
Evidence of Pulse Quenching in AND Gates in 65 Nm Bulk CMOS by Experimental Probing of Full Single-Event Transient Waveforms M. Mitrovic, M. Hofbauer, K. Schneider-Hornstein, B. Goll, H. Zimmermann, Institute of Electrodynamics; K.-O. Voss, GSI Helmholzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH
Full waveforms of single-event transients in AND2 gates under focused heavy-ion micro-beam irradiation were experimentally measured, showing evidence of charge-sharing induced pulse quenching, depending on hit position and logic state.
Frequency Dependence of Heavy-Ion Induced Single-Event Responses of Flip-Flops in a 16-nm Bulk FinFET Technology H. Zhang, H. Jiang, B. L. Bhuva, J. S. Kauppila, W. T. Holman, L. W. Massengill, Vanderbilt University
Circuit-level simulations and heavy-ion experiments were carried out to investigate frequency dependence of single-event cross-sections for hardened DICE-based flip-flops with different spacing options in 16-nm bulk FinFET technology.
NMOS Transistor Location Adjustment for N-Hit Single Event Transient Mitigation in 65 nm CMOS Bulk Technology Z. Wu, S. Chen, P. Huang, National University of Defence Technology
Heavy ion experiments demonstrate that reducing the distance between NMOS transistor and N-well can mitigate N-hit SET. This principle can be applied for RHBD standard cell design without any area overhead.
An Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Protection Circuit Technique for the Mitigation of Single-Event Transients in SiGe BiCMOS Technology M.-K. Cho, I. Song, S. Pavlidis, Z. E. Fleetwood, J. D. Cressler, Georgia Institute of Technology; S. P. Buchner, D. McMorrow, US Naval Research Laboratory; P. Paki, Defense Threat Reduction Agency
The impact of SETs on ESD protection circuits is investigated. For proof-of-concept that SET mitigation can be accomplished through the use of an ESD protection circuit, a RF SPST switch was implemented.
Incorporating Radiation Effects into AE9/AP9 T. P. O'brien, The Aerospace Corporation
This paper describes a framework for incorporating radiation effects into the statistical machinery of the AE9/AP9 radiation climatology model software via "kernel" files. Users can provide their own kernels without modification of the software.
Changes in AE9/AP9/IRENE Version 1.5 T. P. O'brien, T. B. Guild, The Aerospace Corporation; W. R. Johnston, Y.-J. Su, Air Force Research Lab; S. L. Huston, C. Roth, Atmospheric and Environmental Research
This paper describes version 1.5 of the AE9/AP9 family of space radiation climatology models. The most significant change is inclusion of new data sets that change the flux maps.
Dose Rate Dependency of a Floating-Gate Based Voltage Reference for Space Dosimetry Applications X. Li, L. Chen, University of Saskatchewan; D. Hiemstra, V. Kirischian, MDA Inc.; N. W. van Vonno, Intersil Inc.
Low and high dose rate Co-60 testing is conducted on voltage references with floating gate technology. The voltage references respond differently to low and high dose rates and could be used as satellite dosimeters.
A Novel Passive Wireless Total Dose Dosimeter A. Mahmud, Y. Gonzalez-Velo, H. J. Barnaby, J. Aberle, S. Moallemi, J. Kitchen, C. Birtcher, K. Hilgers, T. Eller, K. Holbert, Arizona State University; A. Raman, D. E. Thomas, R. Arslanbekov, K. Bhatt, CFDRC
A novel implementation of a passive remote total dose sensing device operating in the range of 4 to 7 GHz is presented. The wireless sensor is based on a capacitively-loaded folded-patch antenna.
Correlation of a BJT-based neutron displacement damage sensor methodology and NIEL with proton irradiations A. M. Tonigan, Sandia National Laboratories and Vanderbilt University; C. N. Arutt, R. D. Schrimpf, Vanderbilt University; E. J. Parma, P. J. Griffin, Sandia National Laboratories
Three bipolar transistors of varying sensitivity are evaluated as displacement damage sensors with proton, neutron and ionizing dose irradiations. The response is correlated to calculated non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL).
Using Two-Photon Absorption to Measure the Single-Event-Latchup Sensitive-Volume P. Wang, A. L. Sternberg, J. A. Kozub, E. X. Zhang, D. M. Fleetwood, R. A. Reed, R. D. Schrimpf, Vanderbilt University; N. A. Dodds, Sandia National Laboratories; S. L. Jordan, Jazz Semiconductor Trusted Foundry
Single-event latchup sensitive volume is measured using a two-photon absorption technique that is based on the intrinsic variability of the laser pulse energy.