Short Course Sessions


Multi-Scale, Multi-Physics of Radiation Effects

Short Course attendees will receive the

1980-2022 Short Course Compendium

Course Description

A short course, “Multi-Scale, Multi-Physics of Radiation Effects”, will be presented at the 2022 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference. A comprehensive understanding of radiation effects on modern microelectronics requires combining experimental and theoretical tools in order to assess the physical processes occurring at various scales. First, the relevant radiation environment should be determined and radiation transport through any materials surrounding the circuit or device of interest should be modeled. Then, the deposited energy can be evaluated as well as its conversion into charges or defects. The transport and recombination of these charges in the semi-conductor and insulator regions, their trapping in insulators or at the interfaces are at the basis of the description of electrical impact of radiation-induced defects and of the cumulative or transient effects at device, circuit or system levels.

The short course is organized into four sections, all featuring introductory material and advanced topics, with an emphasis on the physics involved in the radiation effects on microelectronics. The first section addresses the natural and man-made radiation environments, with emphasis on the simulation toolkits for the radiation- matter interactions. The second part focuses on the basics of radiation effects on microelectronic components and systems, discussing the single-event and total ionizing dose effects and focusing on their experimental characterizations. The third section illustrates the multi-scale approaches and associated simulation tools that can be used to model the cumulative dose effects at the various scales, from the device

to the circuits. The final course deals with the existing multiscale simulation tools for Single Event Effects. The topics covered should benefit people new to the field as well as experienced engineers and scientists, by providing up-to-date material and insights.

The short course is intended for radiation effects engineers, component specialists, system designers, and other technical and management personnel involved in developing reliable systems designed to operate in radiation environments. It provides a unique opportunity for IEEE NSREC attendees to benefit from the expertise of excellent instructors, along with a critical review of state-of-the-art knowledge in the field. Electronic copies of detailed course notes will be provided to each participant.

Continuing Education Units (CEUs)

Continuing Education Units (CEUs) will be available. For the interested attendees, an exam will be given at the end of the short course. The course is valued at 0.6 CEUs, and is endorsed by the IEEE and by the International Association for Continuing Education and Training (IACET).

Short Course Chairman

Sylvain Girard

University of St Etienne

Short Course Chair

Sylvain Girard obtained his PhD in Optics, Photonics in 2003 from Université Jean Monnet (UJM) in France. He joined the CEA in 2004 and became a CEA Senior
Expert in 2011. He was investigating the vulnerability and radiation hardening of optical components for the Laser Mégajoule. In 2012, Sylvain joined the UJM as Full Professor. He is today leading the MOPERE research group of Laboratoire Hubert Curien and is one of the founders of the LabH6 joint research lab between UJM,
CNRS and the industrial iXblue. His main research axis deals with the development of a coupled simulation/experiments approach to build predictive models for the behavior of photonic technologies in harsh environments. He serves the radiation effects community in several positions, in particular as Member-at-Large on the IEEE NPSS Radiation Effects Steering Group and as one of the Associate Editors of IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (2008-2018). He has authored or co-authored more than 240 articles in peer-reviewed journals. Sylvain received the 2013 IEEE NPSS Early Achievement Awards and the 2014 Léon-Nicolas Brillouin Award from IEEE/SEE. Sylvain is a Senior Member of the IEEE.

Giovanni Santin is senior analyst at the European Space Agency as a consultant from RHEA System, and Honorary Visiting Fellow at the University of Leicester. He received his PhD in physics from the University
of Trieste, Italy. He worked at CERN (for the University of Geneva) and the University of Lausanne, before joining in 2002 the Space Environments and Effects Analysis section of ESA/ESTEC. Giovanni’s current research interests are in radiation monitoring, dosimetry, radiation transport and effects modelling for manned and unmanned missions. He is a specialist in radiation transport codes for Monte-Carlo simulations. His work has supported ESA projects including Cosmic Vision exploration missions, with radiation assessments and countermeasures against the harsh particle environments. He is also responsible for several developments aimed at improving shielding effectiveness and spacecraft radiation effects predictions, and at making advanced Geant4-based physics and analysis techniques available and viable in engineering environments.

FROM RADIATION ENVIRONMENTS TO RADIATION- MATTER INTERACTIONS

Dr. Giovanni Santin
ESA/ESTEC and RHEA System

Dr. Giovanni Santin, ESA/ESTEC and RHEA System, will address the natural and man-made radiation environments and their propagation in structures and sensitive elements. An overview will be provided of the features of the diverse radiation fields to which electronics and humans are exposed in space and terrestrial environments. The relevant physical interaction processes and related concepts and terminology will be introduced, with particular attention to the multi-physics and multi-scale aspect of the interactions in modern technologies, in space and at ground accelerator and laser test facilities. Experimental measurement techniques will be described for dosimetry and transients at low scale, together with modeling techniques for simulation of radiation transport up to the sensitive components (e.g. sensors or microelectronic circuits) and for the interactions therein, as a starting point for radiation effect calculation.

A top-level outline of the presentation is as follows:

  • Introduction
  •  Natural and man-made radiation environments
    •  Space radiation environment components
    •  Natural atmospheric and ground radiation sources
    • Man-made radiation environments
  • Mechanisms of radiation-matter interaction
    •  Physical processes in semiconductor, insulator and surrounding materials
    • Energy deposition and radiation exposure quantities for cumulative phenomena
    •  Energy deposition and single events: charged particles and laser
    • Experimental characterization: dosimetry and transients at small scales
    • Radiation transport tools: multi-physics, multi-scale challenges
  • Summary

Philippe Paillet (M'97– SM'04–F’18) received his Master's degree in Electrical Engineering from the Université Aix-Marseille I, France, in 1989 and his PhD degree in Electrical Engineering from the Université Montpellier II, France, in 1995. He joined the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) in Arpajon, France in 1995, and is CEA International Expert. Philippe has been involved in numerous programs developing radiation-hardened electronic
and optoelectronic technologies, characterizing the physical mechanisms responsible for radiation response of components and ICs, modeling the effects of radiation in MOS technologies and the creation of radiation-induced defects, and developing hardness assurance approaches. Philippe has authored or co-authored more than 250 publications, articles, short courses and book chapters, including three Best Papers at RADECS, two Meritorious Paper Awards at NSREC, one Best Paper Award at HEART, and five Outstanding Paper Awards at NSREC. He is currently serving as Vice-president of the RADECS Association and RADECS Liaison to the IEEE Radiation Effects Steering Group.

EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIATION EFFECTS PARAMETERS FOR DEVICE AND CIRCUIT LEVEL MODELING

Philippe Paillet

CEA

Modeling radiation effects is a complex and challenging task faced by the community, since it requires not only the understanding of basic mechanisms of radiation effects, but also of their multi-physics nature. Therefore modeling can only be addressed using multi-scale tools. At device level, it requires the knowledge of basic mechanisms induced by radiation interaction with the different layers constituting a modern device. At circuit level, the complexity grows even further, since circuit response to radiation will depend on device architecture, circuit layout and operating condition. This part of the Short Course will introduce the main key parameters that can be extracted from the experimental characterization of radiation effects in devices and circuits. Some of these parameters are needed as input for design of radiation-aware device and circuit models, others are required to check the validity of the simulations obtained using these models. This course will begin with the description of the main basic mechanisms of radiation effects, both cumulative (such as Total Ionizing Dose or Displacement Damage) and transient (such as Single Event Upset or Single Event Transient)). It will then explain the way to experimentally determine the relevant parameters to be taken into account for a meaningful modeling of these different effects at each level.

A top-level outline of the presentation is as follows:

  • Introduction
  • Cumulative effects induced by Total Ionizing Dose
    • Mechanisms leading to damage in insulating materials
    • Experimental characterization in device and integrated circuit
    • Extraction of relevant parameters for modeling
  • Cumulative effects induced by Displacement Damage
    • Mechanisms leading to damage in Semiconductor Materials
    • Experimental characterization in device and integrated circuit
    • Extraction of relevant parameters for modeling
  • Transient effects induced by radiations
    • Mechanisms leading to damage in Semiconductor Materials
    • Experimental characterization in device and integrated circuit
    • Extraction of relevant parameters for modeling
  • Summary

Hugh Barnaby, Professor of Electrical Engineering at Arizona State University, has been an active researcher in the microelectronics field for over 28 years in both industry and academics, presenting and publishing more than 300 peer- reviewed papers during this time. He is an IEEE fellow and has served as journal Associate Editor for the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science and served many roles at NSREC, including general chairperson in 2020. His primary research focuses on the analysis, modeling, and experimental characterization of radiation effects in semiconductor materials, devices, and integrated circuits.

Ivan Sanchez Esqueda, Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering at Arizona State University, has conducted research in electronic nanotechnologies since 2012, presenting and publishing over 40 peer-reviewed articles during this time. He is an IEEE senior member, has served as journal Associate Editor for the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. His primary research focuses on the development, characterization, and modeling of nanoscale electronic devices.

Professors Barnaby and Sanchez Esqueda hold several joint patents on radiation and reliability effect modeling in semiconductor devices.

MODELING CUMULATIVE RADIATION EFFECTS: DEVICES TO INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
Hugh Barnaby and Ivan Sanchez Esqueda
Arizona State University

Designing integrated circuits requires accurate models to capture the physics of a circuit’s fundamental devices. Transistors are the workhorse circuit elements and by far the most complex. Successful modeling of transistor operation has been one of the great achievements in physics and engineering in the past 100 years. New models are constantly being updated for new transistor technologies as well as for addressing new challenges for older ones. Models are particularly important when we considered the unique challenges posed by cumulative radiation damage on devices. Accurate modeling at the device-level is critical to helping us understand the basic mechanisms of damage to transistors and helps us model radiation effects in circuits, through compact models that are radiation-aware. In this course, the presenters will review device physics and modeling of the two most prominent transistor families: Complimentary MOS (CMOS) field-effect transistors (FETs) and Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT). Once the mechanisms of ionization and displacement damage in these transistors have been presented discussed, the instructors will describe, in detail, the various methods that are used to model these cumulative effects, from devices to integrated circuits.

A top-level outline of the presentation is as follows:

  • Course Overview
    • The Need for Modeling
    • Technologies
  • Mechanisms for Ionizing Damage in Semiconductors
  • Modeling TID Effects in CMOS
    • Device Level Modeling
    • Compact and Circuit Modeling
  •  Modeling TID and DD Effects in COT BJT
    •  Device Level Modeling
    • Compact and Circuit Modeling
  •  Summary

Jean-Luc Autran is Distinguished Professor of Physics and Electrical Engineering at Aix- Marseille University and Honorary Member of the University Institute of France (IUF). Head of the Institute for Materials, Microelectronics and Nanosciences of Provence (IM2NP, UMR 7334), he is also Director of the “Radiation Effects and Electrical Reliability” (REER) Joint Laboratory between IM2NP and STMicroelectronics. Having worked for 30 years in the field of semiconductor interface defects, physics of advanced CMOS devices and radiation effects in microelectronics, his current research interests focus on the physics of single event effects, including characterization, analytical modeling and numerical simulation topics. Jean-Luc Autran is the author or a coauthor of 350 papers published in international journals and conferences. With Daniela Munteanu, he coauthored the book “Soft errors: from particles to circuits” (CRC Press, 2015).

Daniela Munteanu is Director of Research at the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS). Fellow researcher at the Institute for Materials Microelectronics and Nanoscience of Provence (IM2NP), she has 25 years of experience in characterization, modeling and simulation of semiconductor devices. Her current research interests include emerging CMOS devices, compact modeling, numerical simulation in the domains of nanoelectronics and radiation effects on components and circuits. Daniela Munteanu is the author or a coauthor of more than 250 papers published in international journals and conferences. She has supervised 15 Ph.D. thesis and coauthored with Jean- Luc Autran the book “Soft errors: from particles to circuits” (CRC Press, 2015)

MULTI-SCALE, MULTI-PHYSICS MODELING AND SIMULATION OF SINGLE EVENT EFFECTS AT DEVICE AND CIRCUIT LEVELS
Jean-Luc Autran & Daniela Munteanu

Aix-Marseille University & CNRS

Prof. Jean-Luc Autran and Prof. Daniela Munteanu, Aix-Marseille University & CNRS, will provide a state-of-the-art overview of modeling and simulation of single event effects (SEE) at device and circuit levels. The presentation will primarily focus on the specific multi-scale, multi-physics, multi-domains nature of SEEs and on the main underlying physical mechanisms that leads to the occurrence of soft errors in digital circuits. In a first part, a meticulous analysis will address the different ways to model and simulate both in space and time this complex sequence of mechanisms from the particle-material interaction up to the electrical response of a given circuit. In a second part, the presentation will explore some specificities of modern technologies subjected to SEEs in terms of material diversity, device architectures or circuit complexity. The susceptibility of electronics in different environments (natural, artificial) or subjected to a combination of electrical and radiative degradations will be finally presented through the prism of modeling and simulation. This presentation will conclude by some perspectives of works and challenges ahead to anticipate the SEE susceptibility of future nanodevices and related circuits.

A top-level outline of the presentation is as follows:

  • Introduction
  • Understanding the nature of the SEE problem
    • Definition and classification
    • Main steps to produce SEEs in a circuit (summary)
    • Multi-physics, multi-scale, and multi-domain nature of SEEs
  • Principal modeling and simulation approaches
    • Types of methodologies: what simulation level, what input, what output?
    • Collected charge versus collected current approaches
    • Analytical, compact, and full numerical methods at device/cell level
    • Mixed-mode device and circuit simulation
    • High-level description at system level
  • Specific features of modern technologies
    • Advanced bulk
    • FinFETs
    • FD-SOI
    • MBCFETs
  • Anticipating reliability under various environments and operating conditions
    • New radiation environments (high energy physics, power fusion)
    • Synergy effects (electrical degradation, high temperature operation)
  • Challenges for future nano-devices
    • New materials: exploring the periodic table
    • Integrated silicon photonics devices
    • Beyond CMOS: the case of spintronics
    • The horizon of quantum computing
  • Conclusion